||Anti Zionist booklet defining the prohibition of participation in the elections.
Neturei Karta (Ha-Eidah ha-Hareidit), group of ultrareligious extremists, mainly in Jerusalem, who regard the establishment of a secular Jewish state in Erez Israel as a sin and a denial of G-d, and therefore do not recognize the State of Israel. Their name, which is Aramaic for “guardians of the City,” derives from a passage in the Jerusalem Talmud (Hag. 76:3) stating that religious scholars are the guardians and defenders of the city. Neturei Karta broke away from Agudat Israel in 1935, when the latter attempted to restrain extremist demands for an independent ultra-Orthodox Jerusalem community completely separate from the rest of the Zionist community. The group first adopted the name Hevrat ha-Hayyim, after R. Joseph Hayyim Sonnenfeld. It aimed at creating “a circle free from the influence of the contemporary spirit and its fallacious opinions,” and a condition of membership was “the education of sons and daughters in the traditional Jewish manner, without any change (girls’ schools which teach Hebrew do not provide education in the traditional Jewish manner).” The last phrase alluded to Agudat Israel's Bet Ya’akov girls’ schools, where the language of instruction is Hebrew.