||There is a second title page: לוח משנת תרכ"ה עם מנהגים מכל השנה/Kalender für Israeliten auf das Jahr 5625 (1864/65).
This is a successor to the Kalender und Jahrbuch für Israeliten which began in 1842/43 and which continued in that form until 1855/56 when the title change to Jahrbuch für Israeliten. It contains a calendar (in Hebrew) followed by contributions by Dr. F. Bamberger, Dr. A. Jellinek, M. Steinschneider, J. Wertheimer, et al.
Joseph Ritter von Wertheimer (1800–1887), Austrian pedagogue, philanthropist, and merchant. Born in Vienna of a well-to-do Jewish family, Wertheimer first served as a clerk in his father's commercial activities and soon became his partner. Though involved in the practical world of commerce, Wertheimer used his free time to study pedagogics. In his twenties, he embarked on a trip through Germany, Italy, France, and England in order to broaden his cultural background. His interest in pedagogical matters led him to take particular note of English kindergartens, and he returned home eager to further the building of kindergartens in Austria. As a first step, he translated a work on kindergarten schooling which he called Ueber fruehzeitige Erziehung und englische Kleinkinderschulen (1826, 1828). Despite vociferous opposition to the "feather-brained scheme," Wertheimer founded the first kindergarten in Vienna in 1830 with the cooperation of a Catholic priest, Johann Lindner. Subsequently other kindergartens were founded in many Austrian cities. He also established the Allgemeine Rettungsgesellschaft, a society for assistance to released criminals and guidance for juvenile delinquents.
Wertheimer was deeply involved in Jewish activities. In 1840 he organized the Verein zur Foerderung der Handwerke unter den Israeliten, an organization which enabled thousands of Jewish children to learn useful occupations. In 1843 he established at Jewish kindergarten and in 1860 a Society for the Care of Needy Orphans of the Israelite Community, which established an orphan asylum for girls. As trustee, and later as president, of Vienna's central communal body and founder and president of the Israelitische Allianz zu Wien (1872–87), Wertheimer played a leading role in the struggle to achieve equal social and political status for Jews. In 1842 he advocated the emancipation of Austrian Jews in his Die Juden in Oesterreich ... (2 vols., 1842), published anonymously because such works were then prohibited. He also wrote, among other books, Therese: Ein Handbuch fuer Muetter und Kinderwaerterinnen (1835), and Die Stellung der Juden in Oesterreich (1852). He was editor of the Jahrbuch fuer Israeliten (11 vols., 1855–65). Wertheimer's services were recognized by the Austrian emperor who in 1868 conferred upon him the order of the Iron Crown and the accompanying title of nobility.
Dr. Leopold Kompert (1822–1886), German writer, celebrated in his day mainly for his descriptions of Bohemian Jewish life. A native of Muenchengraetz , Bohemia), his early interest was in the Czech national movement. In both Prague and Vienna, where he moved in 1836, he had to interrupt his studies to earn his living as a private tutor. In 1840 he moved to Hungary and at the end of the year became editor of the Pressburg (Bratislava) German language literary periodical Pannonia, in which he published his first articles on Hungarian life. Ludwig August Frankl induced him to write for the Vienna Sonntagsblaetter, in which in 1846 he published his first picture of Jewish life, Die Schnorrer. In 1843 he returned to Hungary as a tutor and published his Roman der Puszta. His first collection, Aus dem Ghetto, appeared at the time of the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution, which Kompert enthusiastically acclaimed. Joining the Oesterreichisches Centralorgan, he campaigned for "right, not rights" (Recht nicht Rechte) for the Jews, particularly the poor and uneducated. Deeply disappointed by the anti-Jewish riots which accompanied the revolution, he wrote an article urging the suppressed and plundered Jews to emigrate to the United States.
Kompert himself settled in Vienna as a journalist and published several more collections of stories, such as Boehmische Juden (1851), Neue Geschichten aus dem Ghetto (2 vols., 1860), and Geschichten einer Gasse (2 vols., 1865), which established his international reputation. Some of them were translated into English, Scenes from the Ghetto (1882), The Silent Woman (1890), and Chrisian and Leah: other Ghetto Stories (1895). His stories were based on personal observation, childhood memories, and incidents related by his elders. In a romantic vein, they were intended for the assimilated Western Jewish reader; most of them deal with the meeting of old and new ideas and the confrontation of Jews and gentiles. In many of them Kompert deals with mixed marriage, which is the central problem of his novel Zwischen Ruinen (3 vols., 1875). His novel Am Pfluge (2 vols., 1855), intended to encourage the Jews to take up agriculture, made a strong impression on Jewish youth in Eastern Europe at the time of the second and third Aliyah in the original and the Hebrew translation. His major work, the novel Franzi und Heini: Geschichte zweier Wiener Kinder (2 vols., 1881), deals with non-Jewish schoolchildren, but a Jewish woman peddler is a major figure. Kompert edited the Oesterreichischer Lloyd (1848–52) and was coeditor of the Jahrbuch fuer Israeliten. As such he was fined for the publication (1863/64) of an article by Heinrich Graetz in which, according to the public prosecutor, "the teaching about the Messiah of the Jewish Orthodox church was offended." He also co-edited the Neuzeit with Simon Szánto. In his later years he was active in Jewish affairs and in Viennese civic life, taking an especial interest in education and the welfare of orphans. Two editions of his collected writings were published, in 1882–83 and in 1906.