||Moses Hess (1812–1875), German socialist, a precursor of modern Zionism, and father of Zionist Socialism. Born in Bonn, Hess remained there with his Orthodox grandfather when in 1817 his father moved to Cologne, where he owned a grocery and a sugar refinery. His grandfather provided him with a religious education, and only at the age of 14 was Hess sent to Cologne, where he worked in his father's business. From 1837 to 1839 he studied philosophy at the University of Bonn, but did not graduate. In 1837 Hess published his first book Die heilige Geschichte der Menschheit, an historical-philosophical work that displayed a profound influence of both the Bible and Spinoza and already contained communistic elements. Of considerably greater importance was his second book, Die europaeische Triarchie (1841), in which he recommended the union of the three great powers - England, France, and Germany - into one European state.
Hess was one of the founders, editors, and, from the end of 1842, the Paris correspondent of the Rheinische Zeitung, the first socialist daily in Cologne (it was suspended by the Prussian government in March 1843 after 15 months of publication). His numerous articles and essays also appeared in a series of radical periodicals of the period. In 1845–46 he edited an important socialist monthly, Der Gesellschaftsspiegel. In 1845 Hess moved to Belgium and was active in the Kommunistenbund, and 1848–49 he lived in Paris as a correspondent for German newspapers. In 1849 he took refuge in Switzerland and two years later in Belgium. From 1853 until the end of his life, he lived, with interruptions, in Paris.
After the death of his father (1851), who left him an inheritance that constituted the basis of his very modest but independent way of life, Hess married his Christian companion Sybille Pesch of Aachen. He spent the years 1861 to 1863 in Germany, where he published his most famous work Rom und Jerusalem, die letzte Nationalitaetsfrage (1862; Rome and Jerusalem, 1918 and later editions). In 1863 he actively cooperated with Lassalle and was the Bevollmaechtigter (plenipotentiary delegate) of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein for the district of Cologne. At the end of 1863 he returned to Paris and contributed a number of studies to the Archives israelites de France. As a Freemason he also contributed to Le monde maLonnique. He was also a Paris correspondent of the Chicago Illinois Staats-Zeitung (1865–70), the Social-Democrat (1865–67), the Rheinische Zeitung (1868–70), and the Volksstaat (1869–70).
As a Prussian subject, Hess was expelled from France at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. He moved to Belgium, where he published his violently anti-Prussian pamphlet, Une nation dMchue, Coalition de tous les peuples centre l'Allemagne (1871). After the war he returned once more to Paris and wrote the first volume of his Dynamische Stofflehre (published posthumously by his wife in 1877). He died in Paris and was buried, according to his own wish, at the Jewish cemetery in Deutz, near Cologne. His remains were transferred to kevuzat Kinneret in Israel in 1961.