||A work on the history of Zionism whose title means "the truth about Kharkov".
At the Sixth Zionist Congress in Basle in August 1903, Herzl encouraged sending a committee to East Africa to investigate. Although this proposal was passed by 295 votes to 178 with 99 abstentions, Russian Zionists were bitterly opposed to such a development. In their view, this was a travesty of Zionist aspirations. The delegates from Kishinev in particular were determined to thwart this scheme; in November 1903 they met at Kharkov and an ultimatum was sent to Herzl: he was to withdraw the East Africa project, or a new Independent Zionist organization would be formed. Ussishkin was the initiator and the moving spirit behind the Kharkov Conference in 1903, that demanded that Herzl abandon the scheme.
Kharkov, city in Ukraine, was outside the Pale of Settlement. Jewish merchants often attended the large fairs held there from the second half of the 18th century, however, and individual Jews even settled there without hindrance. In 1821 the authorities forbade Jews to enter the town, but, on the complaint of the local authorities that the order was harmful to the business of the fairs, Jewish merchants were again admitted in 1835. From 1859 Jews who were allowed to live outside the Pale of Settlement began to settle in Kharkov. In 1868 they were permitted to build a synagogue and nominate a community council. There were then 35 families of merchants and craftsmen. In that period there were 26 Jewish pupils studying at the local secondary school and university and 68 Jewish soldiers. When the fairs were held, some 3,000 Jews would visit the town.
Toward the end of the 19th century, many Jewish youths from the provinces of the Pale began to attend the University of Kharkov, and in 1886 the 414 Jewish students formed 28.3% of the student body. A Bilu society was founded among the Jewish students there. The community numbered 11,013 (6.3% of the total population) in 1897. During World War I and the Civil War (1918–20) many Jews, expelled from their places of residence or escaping from the fighting zone or pogroms, took refuge in Kharkov. The pedagogic seminary of Grodno and its teachers and pupils were transferred to Kharkov in this period. Kharkov became an important Jewish center. A Hebrew secondary school and popular Jewish university were established, and books and newspapers in Yiddish and Hebrew were published there. The conferences of He-Halutz (1920, 1922), the Socialist-Zionist Party (1920), and Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (1923) were held in the town. A group of Hebrew writers was also active there. The consolidation of the Soviet regime marked the end of organized Jewish life, but the choice of Kharkov as capital of Ukraine from 1919 to 1934 and its general development resulted in a rapid increase in the Jewish population, which numbered 65,007 (17.2% of the total) in 1923, 81,138 in 1926, 115,811 in 1935, and approximately 150,000 in 1939. The town was the center of the Yevsektsiya's activities in Ukraine. Several Yiddish Communist newspapers, including the daily, Der Shtern (1925–41), were published.