Bernhard Wachstein (1868–1935), historian, bibliographer, and genealogist. Born in Galicia, he was educated in the Vienna rabbinical seminary and University of Vienna. In 1903 he became librarian of the Vienna community. He broadened the Judaica collection and was made assistant director in 1906; later he became director of the library which he built up to 50,000 volumes, making it one of the richest and best ordered in Europe. In 1912 and 1917 he published his two-volume master work, Die Inschriften des alten Judenfriedhofes in Wien, a scholarly study of the tombstones of the Viennese Jewish community dating from 1540 to 1783. Wachstein subsequently rendered a similar service to the community of Eisenstadt and also published a number of monographs on Moravian communities. He compiled bibliographies of eulogies and Hebrew works in Vienna as well as bibliographies of the writings of G. Wolf and M. Guedemann. Among his genealogies of Jewish personalities, that of Karl Marx, which revealed his rabbinical descent, caused considerable astonishment.