||Final will of R. Israel b. Gedaliah Lipschutz (1782–1860), German rabbinic scholar. R. Lipschutz served as rabbi in the towns of Wronki (1821), Dessau and Colmar (1826–37), and Danzig (1837–60). His fame rests upon his commentary to the Mishnah, entitled Tiferet Yisrael, one of the finest of its class. In this work, he explains the words of the Mishnah briefly, offers new interpretations to difficult passages, particularly in the orders of Zera'im, Kodashim, and Tohorot, and adds everywhere the halakhic ruling as decided on in the Shulhan Arukh and its commentaries. To each of the orders of Mo'ed, Kodashim, and Tohorot, he prefaces general introductions comprising a methodic summation of all the principles of the order, after the manner of Maimonides in his introduction to his commentary on the Mishnah. A considerable portion of the commentary is taken from that of his son, R. Baruch Isaac Lipschutz as well as from R. Akiva Eger, R. Elijah b. Solomon (the Gaon of Vilna), and others. Tiferet Yisrael became the most widespread Mishnah commentary, and is regarded as an invaluable adjunct to that of R. Obadiah Bertinoro. R. Lipschutz's commentary to Zera'im, Zera Emunah, and to Tohorot, Ta'am ve-Da'at, with a general preface entitled "Yevakkesh Da'at," was published in Hanover (1830). His commentary to Nashim, Hosen Rav, was published later (Danzig, 1843). Appended to it was Avi Ezer, a work by R. Lipschutz's father on the Shulhan Arukh, Even ha-Ezer. The commentary to Mo'ed, Davar be-Itto (ibid., 1844), included an introduction dealing with topics relevant to the Sabbath and intercalations. Nezikin was published in Danzig in 1845, along with a treatise on immortality and the resurrection. Kodashim, under the title Hokhmat Elohim (Koenigsberg, 1850), includes laws of the order entitled Homer ba-Kodesh at the beginning and diagrams of the Temple and altar at the end. The commentary was republished in its entirety (Berlin, 1862) with additions by R. Lipschutz's son R. Baruch Isaac.
R. Lipschutz also composed an extensive commentary to the order Tohorot, Ateret Tiferet (Vilna, 1887–95), in which he separated the plain interpretation from the pilpul, calling the former "Yakhin" and the latter "Bo'az," and added a section giving the halakhic rulings, "Hilkheta Gevirta," at the end of each chapter. In later editions of the Mishnah Tiferet Yisrael was similarly divided. He also published a brief commentary to the Mishnah called Zera Yisrael (Vilna, 1852), and his ethical will was published in Koenigsberg in 1861. His son mentions that R. Lipschutz left in manuscript sermons, notes on the Talmud, on Maimonides and on the Shulhan Arukh, and many responsa. He apparently also compiled Rashei Avot, a commentary on Avot, and Megillat Setarim.