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Rabbiner in Altona
This listing is an independent item not part of any collection
 pp., 329:205 mm., light age staining, creased on folds, ink on paper, neat script.
Chronological listing (1660-1892) of the rabbis who served in Altona, major fishing port, suburb of Hamburg, Germany; until 1864 part of Denmark. The Portuguese Jews living in Hamburg were prohibited from burying their dead there, and acquired land for a cemetery in Altona in 1611. Thirteen Portuguese families from Hamburg settled in Altona in 1703, augmenting the small Portuguese settlement already in existence. They organized a community known as Bet Ya'akov ha-Katan (later Neveh Shalom). A synagogue was built in 1770. The Sephardi community, however, remained a branch of the community in Hamburg. Greater importance was attained by the community established by Ashkenazi Jews, who first arrived in Altona in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. In 1641, they received a charter from the king of Denmark to found a community and build a synagogue. Jewish refugees from Poland expelled from Hamburg settled in Altona in 1649. Shortly afterward the Altona community amalgamated with the communities of Hamburg and Wandsbeck to form a single community known by the initials AHW (v"ha), David b. Menahem haKohen of Hanau was elected rabbi of Altona in 1645. The communities separated in the 1660s but reunited in 1671 under Chief Rabbi Hillel b. Naphtali Zevi. The chief rabbinate, as well as the attached yeshiva and bet din, was situated in Altona. It had jurisdiction over the Ashkenazi Jews in all three communities as well as Schleswig-Holstein. In the 18th century the community in Altona overshadowed that of Hamburg, in both scholarship (having a series of eminent rabbis and scholars) and affluence. It was in Altona that the acrimonious Emden-Eybeschuetz amulet controversy took place. Altona was also an important center of Hebrew printing (see below). The three communities remained united until 1811, when Hamburg was occupied by French forces. In 1815 a number of Jews moved from Hamburg to Altona after the emancipation granted by the French was annulled. The Jews in Altona engaged in commerce, shipbuilding, and, especially in the 18th century, whaling. Special economic privileges were granted to them by the Danish kings. Hamburg Jews frequently helped to finance these activities. After the annexation of the area to Prussia in 1866, the Hamburg community grew rapidly and eclipsed that of Altona. In 1938 Altona was officially incorporated into Hamburg. Rabbis of the independent community of Altona were Akiva Wertheimer (1816–35); the eminent halakhist Jacob Ettlinger (1835–71); Eliezer Loeb (1873–92); Meyer Lerner (1894–1926); and Joseph Carlebach (1927–37). The Jewish population of Altona numbered 2,350 in 1867 (out of a total of 50,000), around 2,000 in 1900, and around 5,000 in 1925 (out of 186,000).
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Kind of Judaica