The "Wuerzburger Rav," as he was called, was one of the last great German-style talmudists, and his literary work was chiefly devoted to subjects of practical halakhah; Melekhet Shamayim (on the writing of Torah Scrolls etc., 18602); Moreh la-Zovehim (handbooks for shohatim, 18642); Nahalei Devash (on the law of halizah, 1867). Bamberger also wrote a commentary on Isaac ibn Ghayyat's halakhic compendium (Sha'arei Simhah, 2 pts., 1861–62) and a treatise on the Al Tikrei formula in Talmud and Midrash (Korei be-Emet, 2 pts., 1871–78). His responsa appeared posthumously in Zekher Simhah (1925), Neti'ah shel Simhah (1928), and Yad ha-Levi (1965), all published by one or another of his descendants. Together with R. A. Adler and M. Lehmann, Bamberger published a German translation of the Pentateuch (1873, 19137) on behalf of the Orthodox-Israelitische Bibelanstalt to counter L. Philippson's Bible translation, against which he had published a polemical pamphlet (1860).
He took a firm stand on fundamental issues that were likely to undermine morality and religion. He was especially opposed to mixed dancing, and stressed in his responsum that "any rabbi and instructor is obligated to protest and to abolish any type of mixed dancing that is planned for his city during a festival." In the course of his responsa, he describes how he canceled a dance arranged in Niederenheim, even after the Jewish community had obtained permission from the secular authorities (22d no. 17). In the introduction to his responsa he inveighs against the Shabbateans, and particularly against the Hasidim. Because of his inimical attitude toward them, the Hasidim took steps to have those sections of his introduction directed at them removed, and in many editions the whole of the introduction is indeed missing.
R. Steinhardt mentions that he was "greatly punished by the death of children and grandchildren... and few of many remained to him." His son R. Moses (d. 1799) was the author of a Judeo-German commentary to the Sha'ar ha-Yihud of Bahya's Hovot ha-Levavot (Fuerth, 1765).
בשער: לפרט ו'י'ו'ס'ף' ה'ו'א' ה'ש'ל'י'ט' בכל ה'ארץ [תקל"ג]. בסוף הספר (דף ) חותם המחבר: היום יום ה טוב כסליו תקל"ד. דך [3,ב]: שיר, מאת המחבר, הפותח: אנכי המחבר ספרי זה וקראתי אותו בשם זכרון יוסף. בהמשך העמוד: אמר המגיה ... שמעון נפתלי יכונה הירש בן ... ר' נתנאל ווייל זצ"ל. דף צח-קיט: חידושים ודרשות. דף קיט,ב: שבעה חרוזות ... הודאה ... על העבר. עוד שבעה בתים אחרים ... מתפלל על העתיד ... השיר פותח: אברך את אלהינו אשר עד כה עזרני. הקדמת המחבר נתלשה, מרוב הטפסים, על-ידי החסידים. עי': שמואל ווינער , קהלת משה, עמ' 431, מס' 3566.