After three years at Marburg, he went to Göttingen; after passing (1827) the necessary examination, he was appointed religious instructor at Eschwege, and became district rabbi Nov. 6, 1830. While at Eschwege he wrote "Yesode ha-Torah," which reached its twenty-ninth edition in 1883.
While untiring in his efforts for the moral elevation of the young, Herxheimer's chief aim was the development of agricultural pursuits among his coreligionists. He also devoted much time and effort to the amelioration of the condition of Palestinian and Turkish Jews. In addition to the "Yesode ha-Torah" he wrote: "Der Pentateuch im Hebräischen Texte mit Worttreuer Uebersetzung und mit Fortlaufender Erklärung," 1841; "Die Propheten und Hagiographen im Text mit Uebersetzung und Fortlaufendem Commentar," 1841-48; "Israelitische Glauben- und Pflichten-Lehre," 1836.