||Rare poster concerning the position and status of the Jews in France after its consquest by the Germans in 1940. It has a small heading ville Champigny-Sur-Marne (the location) and in large letters Avis aux Israelites (Advisory to the Israelites), informing the Jews that they must appear by October 2, at the latest, with identification. Failure to appear will subject them to severe measures.
Champigny-sur-Marne is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.5 km. (7.8 miles) from the center of Paris. In World War II , on June 14, 1940, the Wehrmacht entered Paris, which was proclaimed an open city. Most Parisians left, including the Jews. However, the population returned in the following weeks. The German-imposed census of Jewish persons and businesses in November 1940 recorded a total of 149,734 Jews (over six years of age), 7,737 Jewish businesses (private), and 3,456 companies considered Jewish. The Jewish population figure was similar to the prewar one, but large numbers of Parisian Jews had preferred to remain in the southern, unoccupied French territory and a sizable number of well-known Jews fled to England and the U.S. (André Maurois , Georges Gombault, Pierre Lazareff), while some, e.g., René Cassin and Gaston Palewski, joined General De Gaulle's Free French movement in London. In August 1940 a number of Jewish shops on the Champs Elysées were stoned by French Nazis under German protection. The anti-Jewish measures which followed first affected the Parisian Jews. Jews were active from the very first in Résistance movements. The march to the Etoile on Nov. 11, 1940, of high school and university students, the first major public manifestation of resistance, included among its organizers Francis Cohen, Suzanne Djian, and Bernard Kirschen (see also Partisans , Jewish, in General Resistance in France).
The first major roundups of Parisian Jews of foreign nationality took place in 1941: about 5,000 "foreign" Jews were deported on May 14, about 8,000 "foreigners" in August, and about 100 "intellectuals" on December 13. On July 16, 1942, 12,884 Jews were rounded up in Paris (including about 4,000 children). The Parisian Jews represented over half the 85,000 Jews deported from France to extermination camps in the East; most of them were sent to Compiègne or Drancy and from there to Auschwitz , while about three convoys, in March 1943, were despatched to Majdanek and one transport, in May 1944, to Kovno (Kaunas ). During the night of Oct. 2–3, 1941, seven Parisian synagogues were attacked. After an attempt to place the blame on the Jews themselves, it rapidly transpired that the attacks were instigated by the German SD (security police) in Paris and carried out by French Fascists, led by Eugène Deloncle, with explosives supplied by the SD. SS-Brigadefuehrer Max Thomas, R.T. Heydrich's representative to Belgium and France, was then recalled to Berlin, but his Paris subordinate, Standarten-fuehrer Helmut Knochen, kept his position and was even promoted. Several scores of Jews fell in the Paris insurrection in August 1944. Many streets in Paris and the outlying suburbs bear the names of Jewish heroes and martyrs of the Holocaust period and the Memorial to the Unknown Jewish Martyr, a part of the Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaire, was erected in 1956 in the heart of Paris.