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Bidding Information
Lot #    22195
Auction End Date    12/23/2008 10:55:00 AM (mm/dd/yyyy)
Title Information
Title (English)    Ungarische Zeitfragen
Author    Josef L. Fischer
City    Pest
Publisher    Hornyansky und Hummel
Publication Date    1865
Collection Information
Independent Item    This listing is an independent item not part of any collection
Description Information
   First edition. 56 pp.; 180:135 mm; ex-library copy; original softcover bound in library binding; tight margins; stamps: "Buchhandlung Gebr. Wr. Lauffer in Pest, Leihbibliothek"; "Hechal Shlomo, Jerusalem"
   The full title reads: "Ungarische Zeitfragen beleuchtet zur Beherzigung fuer Kaufleute, Industrielle, Gewerbetreibende und Landwirthe des Koenigreiches Ungarn wie ueberhaupt fuer alle Freunde des Vaterlandes von Dr. Josef. L. Fischer, ordentliches Mitglied der koenigl. ungar. Naturforschergesellschaft zu Pest. Ordentliches Mitglied des siebenbuergischen Naturforscher-Vereins zu Hermannstadt. Direktor einer Real- und Handelsschule zu Pest."

Josef Fischer, head of a middle school and commerical college in Pest (Hungary) and engaged in various natural history organizations, wrote this overview of Hungarian geographical, economical and educational questions in 1865. Fischer states that the geographical location and meteorological situation of Hungary has a strong influence on its trade, agriculture, and industry. Fischer gives a detailed overview of the situation in Hungary in 1865 and highlights problems of commerce, trade, and edcuation. He especially favors the construction of canals in order to facilitate the transportation of goods. Although Jews are not specifically mentioned in this pamphlet, the chapter on trading gives interesting insights in questions of goods, the financial and credit system, the beginning of the establishment of manufacturing enterprises, the system of wholesale and retail - all areas in which Jews were engaged. This pamphlet was published 2 years before Jews were granted citizenship.

Most of Hungary came under Hapsburg rule at the beginning of the 18th century. Most of the Jews were peddlers and small tradesmen. There were 81,000 Jews in Hungary in 1787. During the "period of reform" in Hungary in the 1830s and 1840s, the Jewish question was discussed in the legislative institutions, in literature, and in the periodicals and press. In general there was a marked tendency in favor of granting civic rights to the Jews, but on the whole society took a critical view of the Jews and assumed an attitude of reservation toward them, demanding religious and social reforms. The suppression of the revolution of 184849 also affected the status of the Jews. Because many of them were active in the revolution, the Austrian military government imposed a collective fine, it was later reduced. During the 1850s, the Jews were still subjected to judicial and economic restrictions (the Jewish oath; the need for a marriage permit; the prohibition on acquiring real estate; and others). Most of the restrictions were abolished in 185960; the Jews were authorized to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. The first political leaders of the new Hungary, expressed their approval in the granting of civic and political equality to the Jews, and after the Compromise with Austria, the bill on Jewish emancipation was passed in Parliament without considerable opposition (Dec. 20, 1867). During the same period there was a rapid growth of the Jewish population of Hungary, due both to natural increase and immigration from neighboring regions, especially Galicia. The number of Jews had risen to 340,000 by 1850, and in the first population census held in modern Hungary (1869), 542,000 Jews were enumerated.

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Listing Classification
19th Century:    Checked
Other:    Hungary
History:    Checked
First Editions:    Checked
Language:    German
Manuscript Type
Kind of Judaica