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Bidding Information
Lot #    22484
Auction End Date    12/23/2008 1:20:00 PM (mm/dd/yyyy)
Title Information
Title (English)    Tekuni ha-Zohar
Title (Hebrew)    תקוני הזהר
Author    [Kabbalah]
City    Jerusalem
Publisher    Isaac Gashzinni
Publication Date    1883
Collection Information
Independent Item    This listing is an independent item not part of any collection
Description Information
   9, 284, 25 ff., 197:156 mm., light age staining, wide margins. A very good copy bound in modern cloth over boards. Many manuscript notes in margins.
   Kabbalistic commentary to the Torah portion Bereshit, each section (tikkun) beginning with a new interpretation of the word bereshit ("in the beginning"). The work was designed to contain 70 tikkunim, confirming to "the 70 aspects of the Torah." The volume is many times referred to as part five of the Zohar. This edition features several important commentaries.

Kiseh Melekh, commentary to the Zohar by the Rabbi of Marakesh, R. Shalom Buzaglo. He was born in Marrakesh. Among his teachers in Kabbalah were R. Abraham b. Israel Azulai, one of the rabbis of Marrakesh (d. 1741), R. Jacob Pinto, and R. Isaiah ha-Kohen. In his native land Buzaglo was persecuted by the sultan and was subjected to torture by fire. As a result of this experience he signed himself, "brand plucked out of the fire" (Zech. 3:2). In about 1745 he left Morocco and settled in London and there wrote his books on esoteric and exoteric matters. His major work was his commentary on the Zohar. Buzaglo's commentaries on the Zohar were first published in 1750–1755 in Amsterdam and London. These are Mikdash Melekh, a commentary on the whole Zohar, book by book, in four volumes (to which he also added R. Moses Zacuto's commentary from a manuscript); Hadrat Melekh, on difficult passages in the Zohar; Penei Melekh, Hod Melekh, and Kevod Melekh, all on the Idras in the Zohar and on Sifra di-Zeni'uta Kisse Melekh on Tikkunei ha-Zohar. Mikdash Melekh was the first systematic commentary on the whole Zohar to be published. It was very popular and was printed several times. Subsequently the text of the Zohar together with Buzaglo's commentaries were printed in Leghorn (1858) and in Zolkiew (1862). These were based mainly on Lurianic Kabbalah, including all the scattered work of Isaac Luria's disciples, which Buzaglo usually copied word for word, occasionally quoting other opinions. Although this book does not convey the literal meaning of the Zohar, it has had a continuing value for scholars. In several books he added his own novellae on the Talmud. He spent his last years in London where he seems to have served for a time as a member of an Ashkenazi bet din. A number of his pamphlets referring to an halakhic dispute which broke out in London in 1774 were also published. He died in London. Several of his manuscripts were preserved in the bet ha-midrash of the Great Synagogue in London.

Ohr Israel, Hasidic commentary to the Zohar by the Maggid of Kozienice, R. Israel b Shabbetai Hapstein (1733–1814), hasidic zaddik and preacher, born in Apta; one of the first propagators of Hasidism in Congress Poland. His teachers were R. Samuel Shmelke Horowitz of Nikolsburg, R. Dov Baer the Maggid of Mezhirech, R. Elimelech of Lyzhansk, and R. Levi Isaac of Berdichev, with whom he was on friendly terms. In his early years, R. Israel withdrew from society and became an ascetic. After the death of his father, a poor bookbinder, he moved to Przysucha where he earned his living as a teacher (melammed). He then settled in Kozienice where his eloquent preaching gained him the appellation the "Maggid of Kozienice."R. Israel's homilies were notable for their elegant structure and lucid exposition, even though they included much kabbalistic symbolism, and had a great impact on his listeners. He would admonish them "with pleasing and sweet persuasion and not with hard words" (Avodat Yisrael, Avot). On the role of the preacher he taught: "He who reproves people and teaches them the Law and the word of G-d must have insight into the heart of every single one of them, even of the very wicked."

R. Israel became noted for his activity as a zaddik. Many followed him because of his whole-hearted approach to the worship of G-d and his ecstatic mode of prayer through Devekut. According to Israel, the principal duty of the zaddik was to give spiritual guidance to his followers and assist them in divine worship. The devotion to G-d by the zaddik is a dynamic action through which those under his protection also attain devotion to G-d. Thus the zaddik elevates the spirit of the average man and brings him nearer to the Creator, which is the aim of Hasidism. However, the simple man will never attain the heights which the zaddik himself reaches. As a "practical zaddik" R. Israel gained great popularity, actively assisting his followers apart from his duties of spiritual guidance. He thus cared for the welfare, children, and livelihood of his Hasidim and even distributed remedies and amulets. The Mitnaggedim sharply criticized him for this activity while the Hasidim justified it, explaining that the amulets contained his name only. R. Israel's fame also reached high-ranking Poles, and he apparently had connections with the family of the Polish prince Czariorski. He was alive to public affairs and during the period of the grand duchy of Warsaw was to have participated in a convention of delegates of the Polish communities convening in Warsaw mainly to discuss the heavy taxes imposed on the Jews. R. Israel took steps against the opponents of Hasidism and tried, unsuccessfully, to prevent the printing of anti-hasidic works appearing in Warsaw in the late 18th century. A man of the people, he spiced his discourse with proverbs. With his friend R. Jacob Isaac ha-Hozeh of Lublin he was among the principal disseminators of Hasidism of the school of R. Israel b. Eliezer Ba'al Shem Tov in the interior of Poland. He had a profound knowledge of both traditional and esoteric learning, and participated with the greatest scholars of his time in a halakhic discussion on the question of the agunah. His principal halakhic work is Beit Yisrael (Warsaw, 1864). His tractates on the Kabbalah testify to his great esoteric knowledge. A hasidic story relates "that before he traveled to the Maggid of Mezhirech he studied 800 books on Kabbalah and after all that when he came to the holy Maggid of blessed memory he realized that he had not yet learned anything" (Toledot Adam le-Shabbat Hanukkah); his writings on Kabbalah are Or Yisrael, (Czernowitz, 1862); Ner Yisrael, (Vilna, 1822); and others. His principal work on Hasidism is Avodat Yisrael (Yozepof, 1842).

Hiddushei ha-Re-Me-Z, commentary by R. Moses b. Mordecai Zacuto (c. 1620–1697), who was born into a Portuguese Marrano family in Amsterdam, studied Jewish subjects under R. Saul Levi Morteira. He also studied secular subjects. According to tradition, he later fasted 40 days "in order to forget the Latin language." He was a student in the bet midrash of Amsterdam and in his youth traveled to Poland to study in the yeshivot there. Zacuto was attracted by Kabbalah and refers in his letters to his teacher Elhanan, perhaps "Elhanan the kabbalist," who died in Vienna in 1651. He moved to Italy, remaining for some time in Verona. From 1645 he lived in Venice and served for a time as a preacher under R. Azariah Figo. Afterward, he became one of the rabbis of the city and a member of the Venetian yeshivah. Between 1649 and 1670 he was proofreader of many books printed in Venice, especially works on Kabbalah. He edited the Zohar Hadash in 1658, and also wrote many poems for celebrations and special occasions. Zacuto tried to acquire the manuscripts of the Safed kabbalists, especially those of R. Moses Cordovero and the different versions of the works of R. Hayyim Vital. He befriended the kabbalist R. Nathan Shapiro of Jerusalem and the old kabbalist R. Benjamin ha-Levi, who served as an emissary from Safed in Venice for two years (1658–59).

Zacuto's published exoteric works include his commentary on the Mishnah, Kol ha-Re-Me-Z; he was known throughout his life as Re-Me-Z, from his initials (Rabbi Moses Zacuto). Part of the work was published in Amsterdam in 1719. R. H. J. D. Azulai, in his Shem ha-Gedolim, noted that the manuscript was twice as long as the printed edition. A collection of halakhic responsa was published in Venice in 1760. A commentary on the Palestinian Talmud is lost. His major activity, however, was in Kabbalah. Zacuto opposed the mingling of the kabbalistic system of R. Cordovero with that of R. Isaac Luria which was then current in some circles (Tishby, in Zion, 22 (1957), 30) and for this reason he criticized R. Solomon Rocca's Sefer Kavvanat Shelomo (Venice, 1670) even though he composed a poem honoring the author (see Zacuto's Iggerot, letters nos. 7, 8). He went over the entire corpus of R. Luria's and R. Vital's writings and added many annotations under the name Kol ha-Re-Me-Z or the abbreviation Ma-Za-La-N (Moshe Zakkut Li Nireh - "It seems to me, Moses Zacuto"). Many of them are collected in the books Mekom Binah and Sha'arei Binah of R. Isaac Sabba (Salonika, 1812–13). Zacuto wrote at least two commentaries on the Zohar. Zacuto arranged tikkunim ("special prayers") for several religious ceremonies according to Kabbalah. These were often reprinted and had great influence, especially on the religious life in Italy. They include Sefer ha-Tikkunim (a tikkun for the eve of Shavuot and Hoshana Rabba; Venice, 1659), Mishmeret ha-Hodesh (ibid., 1660), Tikkun Shovavim (the initials of the first six sections of Exodus), i.e., a tikkun for fasts undertaken in expiation for nocturnal ejaculations (ibid., 1673), and Tikkun Hazot (ibid., 1704).

Paragraph 2    ... מוגה ומדוקדק... מתקוני הזהר דפוס קושטאנדינה משנת ת"ק... אשר הגיה... ר' יעקב ווילנא... עם הפירוש... כסא מלך, מאת הרב... שלום בוזאגלו... ואלה מוסיף על הראשונים, שלשה פירושים... דרך אמת, עם תוספת מרובה, הגהות ופירושים... כאשר נדפסו בקושטאנדינה ובליוורנו... אור ישראל, מאת הרב... ישראל [הופשטיין] זללה"ה מ"מ דק"ק קאזניץ... כבוד מלך... פירוש מאמרי התיקוני' בס' עץ חיים... מרבינו הרח"ו [ר' חיים וויטאל]... ולמלאות תשוקת עם ה'... הדפסנו ס' חידושי הרמ"ז מהרב... מהר"ם [ר' משה] זכותא... כל אלה חוברו לה יחדיו והובאו לבה"ד... ע"י הר"ר מנחם קלונימס... בהרה"ג מוהרבב"ז (ר' ברוך בנימין זאב)... שנת ב'ונ'ה' י'ר'ו'ש'ל'ם' ה`

עם הקדמת ר' שלום בוזאגלו ודברי המביאים לדפוס של ספר "אור ישראל" להמגיד מקאזניץ (טשערנאוויץ תרכ"ב). בשולי העמ' שלושה פירושים: "דרך אמת והגהות", כולל הביאורים של ר' חיים וויטאל ואחרים, כנדפס בתיקוני זוהר אורטה קיוואי תע"ט והגהותיהם של ר' יעקב ווילנא ובנו ר' חיים ירוחם שנדפסו בתקוני זוהר, קושטאנדינה ת"ק; "אור ישראל" לר' ישראל הופשטיין; "כסא מלך" לר' שלום בוזאגלו. הדפסת הספר הסתיימה ביום כא אב תרמ"ד על ידי המסדר צבי בן יהודא הלוי (דף רפד,ב). כה דפים שבסוף הספר (צורפו רק לחלק מהטפסים שראינו) נדפסו לאחר מכן, כנראה בפולין (בווארשא?) וכוללים: פירוש על המאמרים מהתיקונים מאת ר' חיים וויטאל; כללים להאר"י; חדושי הרמ"ז; כבוד מלך, והוא לקט מאמרי ר' חיים וויטאל על תיקוני הזוהר, שנאספו בספרו של ר' שלום בוזאגלו הדרת מלך, [לונדון תקל"ד]. ראינו טופס עם שינויים טיפוגראפיים: במקום 8 דף בראש הספר נדפס שער בלבד בשינויי נוסח: ספר תקוני הזהר... מוגה... מתקוני זהר דפוס קושטאנדינה... וסביב... שלשה פירושים... דרך אמת עם... הגהות... כסא מלך מאת הרב... שלום בוזאגלו... אור ישראל... הובא לביה"ד ע"י... מנחם קלונימס בהרה"ג מוהרבב"ז... ושותפו הר"ב... מעבר לשער זה הסכמות ר' יעקב שאול אלישר ודייני האשכנזים בירושלים בלבד. בשולי ההסכמות: "יש עוד... הסכמות... ויודפסו... בגמר הדפסת הסה"ק הזה". בטופס זה כה דף האחרונים אינם נמצאים.

הסכמות: ר' יעקב שאול אלישר; דייני האשכנזים בירושלים: ר' יעקב יהודה לעווי, ר' בנימן ב"ר שמואל [מסטופצי] ור' יעקב ב"ר משה [סלוטקי], ירושלם, יא אדר שני תרמ"ג; רבני חברון: ר' אליהו סלימאן מני, ר' שמעון מנשה ב"ר משה [חיקין] ור' רחמים יוסף פראנקו, ניסן תרמ"ג; ר' שמואל העליר, ר' רפאל ב"ר מרדכי [זילברמאן] ור' משה במהר"ש מרודניק, צפת, אייר תרמ"ג; ר' שלמה חזן ור' מרדכי מאמאן, צפת, אייר תרמ"ג; ר' רפאל אברהם כלפון, ר' דוד ב"ר יעקב ואעקנין ור' יוסף דוד אבואלעפיא, טבריה, ח חשון תרמ"ד; ר' אברהם צבי הלוי, טבריא, ראש חודש מרחשון תרמ"ג; ר' חיים אלעזר וואקס, ווארשא, כז כסלו תרמ"ד; ר' יעקב צבי [רבינוביץ] מפאריסאוו; ר' יחיאל ב"ר שרגא פייביל [דנציגר], אלכסנדר, ט שבט תרמ"ד; ההסכמות לספר כסא מלך לר' שלום בוזאגלו, אמשטרדם תקכ"ט.

   CD-EPI 0309282; EJ
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Listing Classification
19th Century:    Checked
Israel:    Checked
Kabbalah:    Checked
Language:    Hebrew
Manuscript Type
Kind of Judaica