||An appeal for funds for the Jews of Dagestan living in Jerusalem. "The Ashkenzaim say they do not receive donations from the Jews of Dagestan and the Sefardim ...do not know us...".
Mountain Jews, a Jewish ethnic and linguistic group living mainly in Azerbaijan and Daghestan. The name "Mountain Jews" emerged in the first half of the 19th century when the Russian Empire annexed those territories. It is supposed that the name derives from "mountain of the Jews" (Chufut or Dzuhud Dag in the Tat language), an ancient name of Daghestan, indicating its large Jewish population.
The Mountain Jews call themselves Juhur. They speak several dialects (similar to each other) of the Tat language, which belongs to the western branch of the Iranian languages group. Their main centers of settlement are: in Azerbaijan, Baku , capital of the republic, and the town of Kuba where the majority of Mountain Jews live in the suburb of Krasnaya Sloboda which has an all-Jewish population; in Daghestan, Derbent , Makhachkalah, capital of the republic (which was called Petrovsk Port until 1922), and Buynaksk (Temir-Khan Shurah prior to 1922). Outside Azerbaijan and Daghestan, considerable numbers of Mountain Jews live in Nalchik, in the suburb of Yevreyskaya Kolonka, and also in the town of Grozny.
Already in the 1840s or 1850s the yearning for the Holy Land led some Mountain Jews to Ereẓ Israel. In the 1870s and 1880s Jerusalem emissaries regularly visited Daghestan to collect halukkah money. In the second half of the 1880s a Kolel Daghestan (Daghestan congregation) already existed in Jerusalem. R. Sharbat Nissim-Oghly settled in Jerusalem at the end of the 1880s or in the early 1890s. In 1894 he issued there a brochure, Kadmoniyyot Yehudei he-Harim ("The Ancient Traditions of the Mountain Jews"). In 1898 representatives of the Mountain Jews participated in the Second Zionist Congress in Basle. In 1907 R. Jacob Itzhakovich-Yizhaki moved to Ereẓ Israel and headed a group of 56 founders – mostly Mountain Jews – of the settlement Be'er Ya'akov near Ramleh, which is named for him. Another group tried without success to settle in Mahanaim in Upper Galilee in 1909–1911. Ezekiel Nisanov, who went to the country in 1908, became a pioneer of the Ha-Shomer organization and was killed by the Arabs in 1911. His brothers Judah and Zevi also joined Ha-Shomer. Before World War I, the number of Mountain Jews in Erez Israel reached several hundred, most of them living in the Beth Israel quarter of Jerusalem.
Dr. Scharbet Anisimow was the first "*mountain Jew " to study at the Volozhin yeshiva, becoming rabbi of Tarka, and later of Temir Khan Shura, also in Dagestan.