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Bidding Information
Lot #    34705
Auction End Date    7/17/2012 10:05:30 AM (mm/dd/yyyy)
Title Information
Title (English)    Letter by R. Frank; R. Jehiel Michel Tykocinski
Title (Hebrew)    כתב מה'ר צבי פסח פראנק וה'ריחיאל מיכל טיקוצינסקי
Author    [Ms. - Community]
City    Jerusalem
Publication Date    1938
Collection Information
Independent Item    This listing is an independent item not part of any collection
Description Information
   [1] p., 287:222 mm., light age staining, creased on folds, typewritten on paper, signed by the three rabbis in ink, dated.
   R. Zevi Pesah Frank (1873–1960), chief rabbi of Jerusalem and halakhic authority, was born in Kovno, Lithuania. His father, R. Judah Leib, was one of the leaders of the "Haderah" society in Kovno which founded the village of Haderah in Erez Israel. He studied under R. Eliezer Gordon at Telz and under R. Isaac Rabinowitz at Slobodka. He attended the musar discourses of R. Israel Lipkin of Salant. In 1893 he proceeded to Jerusalem where he continued his studies at the yeshivot of Ez Hayyim and Torat Hayyim. He acquired an outstanding reputation, combining a profound knowledge of the Talmud with sound common sense. Despite his youth, he was encouraged by R. Samuel Salant, the rabbi of Jerusalem, who consulted with him in his halakhic decisions. In 1895 he married Gitah-Malkah, granddaughter of R. Hayyim Jacob Spira, head of the Jerusalem bet din. Subsequently he taught at a number of Jerusalem yeshivot. In 1902 he moved to Jaffa in order to be able to devote himself entirely to study. R. A. I. Kook had already taken up his appointment there, and later he and R. Frank associated in the efforts to establish the rabbinate of Israel.

In 1907 R. Frank was appointed by R. Salant and the scholars of Jerusalem as a member of the Bet Din Gadol in the Hurvah synagogue. Although he was its youngest member, the burden of the bet din, and the religious affairs of the city fell mainly upon his shoulders. He conducted single-handedly the spiritual administration of the city in the difficult days of World War I. The Turks tried to send him into exile in Egypt, but he hid in an attic from where he directed the rabbinical affairs of the city until the entry of the British (December 1917). The rabbinate was in a perilous state and Frank made strenuous efforts to raise its status, both materially and spiritually. He understood the importance of founding a central rabbinical organization, and immediately after the British occupation, took steps to found "The Council of Rabbis of Jerusalem." This organization, however, was short lived. Later, however, he established the "Rabbinate Office," which became the nucleus of the chief rabbinate of Israel, and on his suggestion R. A. I. Kook was invited to become chief rabbi of Palestine in 1921. In the violent controversy which resulted, fomented by the extreme religious section which saw no halakhic precedent for such an appointment, R. Frank brought proof to bear. In 1936 he was elected chief rabbi of Jerusalem. In consequence of his preeminence as a halakhist, the appointment was accepted by all parties, including those who opposed him on political grounds.

R. Jehiel Michel Tykocinski (1872–1955), rabbi and author. R. Tykocinski was born in Lyakhovichi, Belorussia. Orphaned of his father while still young, he was taken to Erez Israel in 1882. He studied under R. Samuel Salant , whose granddaughter he married in 1890. In 1900 he began to take part in the administration of Ez Hayyim in Jerusalem, at first as head of the junior department and then as chief administrator. He contributed greatly to the development of the institution – both when it was in the Old City of Jerusalem, and later when it moved outside. He was also active in the foundation of new suburbs in Jerusalem, and favored the unification of all sections of the Jewish population, new and old. R. Tykocinski specialized in the laws and customs pertaining to Erez Israel, and from 1904 onward published an annual Lu'ah ("calendar") detailing liturgical and other customs for the whole year. This calendar was accepted as the authoritative guide for the liturgical and synagogal customs of the Ashkenazim in Israel; it continued to appear under the editorship of his son even after his death.

R. Tykocinski devoted himself especially to halakhic problems connected with astronomy, in which field he published Tekufat ha-Ḥamah u-Virkatah (1924); Bein ha-Shemashot (1929); and Sefer ha-Yomam (1943), on the international date line. His other works are Tohorat Yisrael (c. 1910); Ha-Ishah al pi Hukkat Yisrael (1920); Hilkhot Shevi'it (1910) and Sefer ha-Shemittah on the laws of the Sabbatical Year; Gesher ha-hayyim (1947, 19602) on the laws of mourning; and Sefer EreZ Yisrael (1955) on the laws and customs appertaining to Erez Israel. He also published many articles in various journals and left behind in manuscript novellae on the Talmud and responsa.

   S. Zevin, Ishim ve-Shitot (1963), 337–60; D. Katz, Tenu'at ha-Musar, 3 (1957), 37–42; A. Rothkoff, in: Jewish Life (March 1971), 51–57; EJ; J.M. Tykocinski, Gesher ha-Ḥayyim, 1 (19602), introd. by Nissan A. Tykocinski; EJ
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Listing Classification
20th Century:    Checked
Israel:    Checked
History:    Checked
Language:    Hebrew
Manuscript Type
Letters:    Checked
Kind of Judaica