||Work on chiromancy (palmistry) by R. Jacob ben Mordecai of Schwerin (also known as Jacob of Fulda; 17th century). The author is known for his Shoshannat Ya'akov (Amsterdam, 1706) on palmistry, physiognomy, and astrology, which claimed to be based on the works of seven scholars, including Aristotle who, according to Jacob, had been converted to Judaism, from which this work is certainly excerpted. Jacob lived in Fulda which he was compelled to leave, probably during the temporary expulsion of Jews from that town in 1671, and settled in Schwerin. He was the author of Tikkun Shalosh Mishmarot (Frankfurt, 1691), prayers for the three vigils, chiefly from the Zohar. It was translated into Yiddish the following year, with an introduction by the author's wife, Laza (Frankfurt on the Oder, 1692).
Chiromancy (Palmistry) is the determination of a man's character and frequently of his fate and future from lines and other marks on the palm and fingers was one of the mantic arts which developed in the Near East, apparently, during the Hellenistic period. No early chiromantic sources from this period have been preserved, either in Greek or Latin, although they did exist. Chiromancy spread, in a much fuller form, in medieval Arabic and Byzantine Greek literature, from which it found its way to the Latin culture. It would seem that from the very beginning there were two traditions. The first linked chiromancy closely with astrology and so produced a quasi-systematic framework for its references and predictions. The second was not connected with astrology at all, but with intuition, whose methodological principles are not clear. In the Middle Ages the Christian chiromantics found a scriptural basis for chiromancy in Job 37:7: "He sealeth up the hand of every man, that all men may know his work" which could be interpreted to mean that the hand imprints are made by God for the purpose of chiromancy. This verse is adduced in Jewish tradition only from the 16th century onward.
Chiromancy appears first in Judaism in the circle of Merkabah mysticism. The fragments of their literature include a chapter entitled Hakkarat Panim le-Rabbi Yishma'el written in a rabbinic style. This chapter is the earliest literary source of chiromancy which has thus far been found. It is only partly comprehensible because it is based on symbols and allusions which are still obscure, but it has no connection with astrological method. It uses the term sirtutim for the lines of the hand. From a responsum of Hai Gaon (Ozar ha-Ge'onim on tractate Hagigah, responsa section, pg. 12), it is clear that the Merkabah mystics used chiromancy and Hellenistic physiognomy in order to ascertain whether a man was fit to receive esoteric teaching. They quoted as scriptural support for these sciences Genesis 5:1–2: "This is the book of the generations of man" (the Hebrew Toledot interpreted to mean "the book of man's character and fate") and "male and female created He them," which implies that chiromantic prediction varies according to the sex, the right hand being the determining factor for the male, and the left hand for the female.
Apart from the chapter mentioned above, there circulated for a long period of time translations of an as yet unidentified Arabic chiromantic source, Re'iyyat ha-Yadayim le-Ehad me-Hakhmei Hodu ("Reading the Hands by an Indian Sage"). The sage is named in Hebrew manuscripts as Nidarnar. Of this source two translations and various adaptations have been preserved and the work became known in Hebrew not later than the 13th century. One of the adaptations was printed under the title Sefer ha-Atidot in the collection Urim ve-Tummim (1700). At the end of the 13th century the kabbalist Menahem Recanati had a copy of this text, which is based entirely on the principles of the astrological method of chiromancy relating the main lines of the palm and the various parts of the hand to the seven planets and their influences. The author was already familiar with the basic chiromantic terminology common in non-Jewish literature. His work deals not only with the meaning of the lines, or harizim, but also with otiyyot, i.e., the various marks on the hand.
In various parts of the Zohar there are passages, some of them lengthy, which deal with the lines of both the hand and the forehead. A discipline was devoted to the latter, which corresponded to chiromancy and in the Middle Ages was called metoposcopy. Two different versions of this subject are included in the portion of Jethro and are based on Exodus 18:21, the first in the actual Midrash ha-Zohar (fol. 70a–77a) and the second an independent treatise called Raza de-Razin which is printed in columns parallel to the former, and continued in the addenda to the second part of the Zohar (fol. 272a–275a). Here the lines of the forehead are discussed in detail. A third account devoted to the lines of the hand is found in Zohar (2:77a–78a), and consists of three sections. Although the Zohar brings out the parallel between the movement of the heavenly bodies and the direction of the lines on the hand, the influence of astrological chiromancy is not apparent in the details of the exposition, which depends in an obscure way on five letters of the Hebrew alphabet (zayin, he, samekh, pe, and resh). These are used as mystical symbols apparently referring to particular types of character. In a further elaboration of chiromancy in tikkun no. 70 (toward the end) of the Tikkunei Zohar, a relationship is established between the lines on a man's hand and forehead and the transmigrations of his soul. An interpretation of these pages in the portion of Jethro is found in Or ha-Hammah by Abraham Azulai, and was printed separately under the title Mahazeh Avraham (1800). As the knowledge of the Zohar spread, several kabbalists tried to relate chiromancy back to the mysteries of the Kabbalah; especially Joseph ibn Sayah, at the beginning of Even ha-Shoham, written in Jerusalem in 1538 (Jerusalem, J.N.U.L., Ms. 8°416); and Israel Sarug in Limmudei Azilut (1897, p. 17). Gedaliah ibn Yahya says in Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah (Amsterdam, 1697), 53a, that he himself wrote a book (1570) on the subject of chiromancy under the title Sefer Hanokh (or Hinnukh).
In Hebrew books on astrological chiromancy the main lines of the hand are given the following names: (1) Kav ha-Hayyim ("the life-line"; Lat. Linea Saturnia); (2) Kav ha-Hokhmah ("the line of wisdom"; Linea Sapientiae); (3) Kav ha-Shulhan ("the table line"; Linea Martialis); (4) Kav ha-Mazzal ("the line of fate") or Kav ha-Beri'ut ("the line of health"; Linea Mercurii). The idiomatic expression found in later literature, einenni be-kav ha-beri'ut ("I am not in the line of health"), meaning "I am not in good health" is derived from chiromantics.