||Graphic photographic record of the horrors of the infamous concentration camp at Mauthausen. The text is in Hungarian. There is an introduction and then the photographs which are two to a page in sepia. The photographs are organized from introductory views of the approaches to Mauthausen, to photos of the camp grounds, the ovens, Germans, Jews at forced labor, shot, and then horrific photos of the Holocaust, concluding with the aftermath of the war. Not for those sensitive to such pictures.
Mauthausen was a Nazi concentration camp in Austria 12 1/2 mi. (20 km.) S.E. of Linz, established in April 1938 shortly after the annexation of Austria to Nazi Germany. The S.S. employed its prisoners in the local granite quarry called "Wienergraben," that was incorporated into the camp. Initially, Mauthausen served as a concentration camp for Austrian anti-Nazis. Its commander from February 1939 to May 1945 was Franz Ziereis about whom it was stated that "he gave his son fifty Jews for target practice as a birthday present" (see Presser p. 54). Starting as a satellite of Dachau, Mauthausen became an independent camp in the spring of 1939, and expanded continually, with several satellites of its own throughout Austria (Gusen, Ebensee, and others) by the end of the war. After the outbreak of World War II it became a camp for anti-Nazis from all over occupied Europe and in 1940 was graded in category III, the harshest category of concentration camps (Dachau was in category I). Mauthausen received the so-called "protective custody" prisoners whose "return was not desired" (RU = Rueckkehr unerwuenscht; see Camps, Concentration and Extermination). Himmler specially ordered the death of a prisoner in Mauthausen to be communicated to his family only after incineration. The camp had the highest death rate of all the concentration camps with regard to "protective custody" prisoners. Of over 10,000 Spanish Republicans who were interned there early in 1941, handed over by the Vichy regime, only 1,500 were still alive after one year.
Work conditions were intolerable; the prisoners had to carry heavy stones up the 186 steps of the "Wienergraben." In November 1941 Russian prisoners of war began arriving, destined for immediate liquidation by death through overwork and starvation. The camp authorities used a special measuring installation to shoot their victims in the nape of the neck. Prisoners were also killed by phenol injections or gassed at the euthanasia installation at Hartheim until a gas chamber was constructed at Mauthausen. From the beginning of 1942 prominent citizens from occupied territories arrested under the "night and fog decree" were brought there. Recaptured prisoners of war were executed under the "bullet decree" (Kugel-Erlass). When prisoners of other camps were caught for clandestine activities, those not immediately executed were sent to Mauthausen for punishment. Following Heydrich's death, hundreds of Czech prisoners were killed.
In May 1941 about 400 Jewish "hostages" from Amsterdam arrived via Buchenwald; they were all killed within three days in the forced-labor quarry which also served as a place of execution. There were another two shipments of Jews from Holland to Mauthausen (end of 1941 and 1942) who were killed after a short time in the camp. Up to 1944 Jews never stayed alive for more than three days. When the camps in the East were evacuated, thousands of prisoners from Auschwitz, including Jews, were brought to Mauthausen. Hungarian Jews arrived in 1944, and after the evacuation of Hungary, thousands of Hungarian Jews who had slaved at the so-called "Southeast Rampart" were brought. The name of Mauthausen was particularly feared by Holland's Jews, and the Germans took advantage of this fear to suppress resistance to their measures against the Jews. The Jews in Mauthausen were singled out for especially cruel treatment compared to that given non-Jews (see Anklageschrift in der Strafsache gegen Fritz Woehrn et al. (1968), 98–102, 228–35). Shortly before the capitulation it was planned to exterminate all Mauthausen prisoners in a subterranean aircraft-construction hangar in Gusen, but the plan was not carried out. Mauthausen was liberated by U.S. troops in May 1945. In the main camp the prisoners had rebelled. Ziereis hid in the camp but was shot by a U.S. patrol several days later when he tried to escape. Of the 335,000 prisoners estimated to have passed through Mauthausen and its satellites, 122,767 were murdered.