||Kabbalistic and Hasidic commentary on the Pentateuch.
R. Hayyim b. Solomon Tyrer of Czernowitz (c. 1760–1816), was born near Buchach, Galicia. A disciple of R. Jehiel Michael of Zloczow, he later served as rabbi in Mogilev, Kishinev, Czernowitz and district, and Botosani. He had a profound knowledge of rabbinical literature and mysticism, was an eloquent preacher and a talented writer. He did much to spread Hasidism and opposed the spread of Haskalah in Rumania. His resistance to certain government decrees forced him to relinquish his office in Czernowitz in 1807. In 1813 he emigrated to Erez Israel and settled in Safed.
He wrote the following additional works, which were published in many editions: Sidduro shel Shabbat (Mogilev on the Dnestr , 1813) on Sabbath; Sha'ar ha-Tefillah (Sudilkov, 1825) kabbalistic reflections on prayer; Erez ha-Hayyim (Czernowitz, 1861) in two parts: (1) a homiletic commentary on the Prophets and Hagiographa, and (2) novellae on the treatise Berakot.
In 1847 the Shapira printing press was established by the three brothers Hanina Lipa, Aryeh Leib, and Joshua Heschel Shapira, sons of Samuel Abraham Abba Shapira, the printer in Slavuta. Until 1862 this was one of the only two Hebrew presses the Russian government permitted to operate in the whole of Russia, the other being in Vilna. This press had 18 hand presses and four additional large presses. In 1851 Aryeh Leib broke away and established his own printing press in Zhitomir. In these two establishments only sacred books of every kind were printed. During the years 1858–64 the press of the two brothers printed a beautiful edition of the Babylonian Talmud together with the Halakhot of R. Isaac Alfasi, and a beautiful edition of the Jerusalem Talmud.